Main Index Thom Yorke Pablo Honey The Bends OK Computer Kid A Amnesiac Hail to the Thief The Eraser In Rainbows The King of Limbs Amok Tomorrow's Modern Boxes A Moon Shaped Pool
A couple of words, that might be related to the song, could be seen in the scrapbook section of radiohead.com since 2004:

These lyrics appeared in the 'scrapbook' section of radiohead.com in 2004 (slightly rearranged here to make them readable):

The Eraser song 'Atoms For Peace' is about Yorke grappling with his worrywart, paranoid-android tendencies. 'No more going to the dark side with your flying saucer eyes,' it begins. 'No more talk about the old days, it's time for something great.'

'Quite a personal song, really,' Yorke sniffed. 'Trying to correlate my life with choosing to do this, and choosing to get over the fear which is a constant thing I have. Being a rock star, you're supposed to have super-über-confidence all the time. And I don't.' A pause. 'And it was my missus telling me to get it together basically.'
In 2006 Four Tet remixed 'Atoms For Peace'. This version was released as a download in december 2007 before appearing on a series of three 12" vinyl remix EPs in january 2008. Later that year the Eraser remixes were also released on CD in Japan:
It took Thom three years following the release of The Eraser to put together a proper tour based on the album. Recruiting Nigel Godrich, Flea, Mauro Refosco and Joey Waronker to form the band, the group played a first set of shows in october 2009 and another in april 2010, initially under the name "?????", since Thom had not yet named the project "Atoms For Peace". The tour ended with a solitary gig in august 2010 in Japan. Each night, the main set would consist of the The Eraser played in its entirety. Inbetween, Thom also played the song in Cambridge at a Green Party benefit:
The song was performed live by Thom and Nigel as part of their Amok album launch DJ sets:
16. february 22nd 2013 Oval Space London UK Link
17. march 8th 2013 Berghain Berlin Germany Link
18. march 14th 2013 Le Poisson Rouge New York City USA Link
19. april 17th 2013 Razzmatazz Barcelona Spain Link
20. april 19th 2013 Gaîté Lyrique Paris France Link
On July 19th 2009, Thom played 'Atoms For Peace' live for the first time at the Latitude Festival:
The song had its full band live debut on October 2nd 2009 at the Echoplex in Los Angeles at the first gig of Thom's then unnamed band, consisting of himself, Flea, Nigel Godrich, Joey Waronker and Mauro Refosco:

On December 4th, 2015, Thom played a different arrangement of the song live with Flea: